The pepper plant (genus Capsicum) belongs to the nightshade family Solanaceae. This plant genus includes all varieties of peppers, including the mild bell pepper and hot peppers in jalapeno and habanero. The pepper plant is native to tropical America.

Pepper plants are perennials, but are typically grown as summer annuals. Pepper plants are propagated by seeding direct into the soil or by transplanting seedlings in a greenhouse environment. Plant height can vary depending on species and variety. Tall varieties grown in commercial greenhouses are supported to prevent damage or breakage of their tender stems.

The pepper plant has become one of the most widely cultivated crop worldwide. The development of greenhouse technology has allowed for an increase in per crop harvest from 2-3 months in the field to 8-9 months in a greenhouse environment.