Protected vegetables

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) in vegetable cultivation

Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a comprehensive and sustainable approach to pest and disease management that has revolutionized modern agriculture. In the context of professional vegetable cultivation, IPM plays a pivotal role in ensuring both crop health and environmental sustainability.

Understanding IPM

IPM is a holistic and proactive strategy that goes beyond the conventional 'chemical-first' approach to pest control. It integrates various methods to effectively manage pests, diseases, and other threats while minimizing environmental and human health impacts. IPM strategies encompass a range of practices, including biological control, cultural practices, mechanical control, and the judicious use of compatible pesticides when necessary.

Emphasizing Sustainability

One of the fundamental principles of IPM is its commitment to sustainability. By reducing the reliance on chemical pesticides, IPM helps preserve soil health, water quality, and biodiversity. This sustainable approach safeguards the long-term viability of agricultural systems, ensuring that future generations can continue to farm and thrive.

Benefits of IPM in vegetable cultivation

  1. Reduced chemical dependency: IPM reduces the need for chemical pesticides, minimizing the risk of harmful residues on vegetables. This is crucial for meeting stringent food safety standards and consumer demand for pesticide-free produce.

  2. Cost-effective: Implementing IPM can result improve profitability for growers. By using targeted interventions and only applying pesticides when necessary, leading to higher yields and increased profitability.

  3. Preservation of beneficial insects: IPM recognizes the importance of beneficial organisms in pest control. Avoiding broad-spectrum pesticides allows natural enemies and pollinators, such as predatory mites and bees, to thrive.

  4. Pesticide resistance: Overreliance on chemical pesticides can lead to resistance of pests. IPM's diversified approach reduces the likelihood of pests developing resistance, ensuring its long-term effectiveness.

  5. Improved crop quality and yield: IPM practices, such as regular scouting for pests and diseases, help identify issues early, allowing for timely interventions and preserving crop quality and yield.

  6. Environmental conservation: By minimizing the use of synthetic chemicals, IPM contributes to a healthier environment. Reduced chemical runoff protects water quality and supports biodiversity and overall ecosystem balance.

  7. Compliance with regulations: IPM aligns with increasingly stringent regulations on pesticide use, making it easier for growers to comply with legal requirements.

Common pests in vegetable crops

Vegetable pests can inflict serious damage in terms of plant growth and crop yield. The most common pests in vegetable crops are aphids, whitefly, thrips, leaf miners, mealybugs, caterpillars, spider mites, and other mites. Learning more about these vegetable pests is an important step into understanding how to control them.

Biological pest control in vegetable crops

Vegetable cultivation faces numerous challenges, including pests that threaten crop health and yield. While conventional methods often rely on chemical pesticides, there's a sustainable and eco-friendly alternative known as biological pest control. Biological control, or biocontrol, is a natural approach to pest management. Instead of resorting to chemical solutions, biocontrol leverages the power of living organisms to control and mitigate pest populations. These organisms can be predators, parasitic wasps, or beneficial fungi that specifically target the pests, causing harm to crops.

Beneficial insects, mites, nematodes and microorganisms

Looking at biological control, beneficial insects, mites, nematodes, and microorganisms take center stage. Natural enemies like predatory mites and parasitic wasps are effective solutions in vegetable crops. Parasitic wasps parasitize pests such as aphids, leaf miners, whitefly, mealybugs and scales keeping their populations in check. Predatory mites prey on spider mites and other mites, thrips, whitefly, and eggs of moths. Beneficial nematodes control soil-dwelling pests like beetle larvae and foliar pests like caterpillars. Beneficial fungi control insect pests like whitefly and thrips.

  • Whitefly control

    Whitefly control

    Biological control of whiteflies in vegetable cultivation is an eco-friendly and effective approach that relies on natural enemies and beneficial micro-organisms. Several beneficial organisms play a crucial role in controlling whitefly, including parasitic wasps, predatory mites, predatory bugs, and entomopathogenic fungi.

    Parasitic wasps

    Eretmocerus eremicus (Ercal) and Encarsia formosa (En-Strip, Enermix), both parasitic wasps, play a vital role by parasitizing whitefly nymphs, reducing their populations significantly. Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa are parasitic wasps that lay their eggs inside whitefly nymphs. When the wasp larvae hatch, they consume the whitefly nymphs from the inside, ultimately killing them. These parasitic wasps are highly effective in reducing whitefly infestations.

    Entomopathogenic fungi

    Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Isaria fumosoroseus (Isarid) are also effective for biological control of whitefly. These fungi infect and kill whitefly by penetrating their cuticle and growing inside the insect, eventually causing death.

    Predatory mites

    Similarly, predatory mites such as Amblyseius swirskii (Swirski-Mite, Swirski-Mite LD, Swirski-Mite Plus, Swirski Ulti-Mite), Amblydromalus limonicus (Limonica) and Amblyseius andersoni (Anso-Mite) are also effective natural enemies of whitefly. These predatory mites feed on whitefly eggs and nymphs, and can significantly reduce the populations of whitefly in a short period of time. These predatory mites cannot be used in tomato as they get stuck in the sticky stuff the glandular hairs of the tomato produce.

  • Spider mite control

    Spider mite control

    Biological control of spider mites and other plant-damaging mites in agriculture relies on beneficial organisms to maintain pest populations at manageable levels. Several key natural enemies play a crucial role in the biological control of mites, including predatory mites, gall midges, and predatory bugs.

    Predatory mites

    Phytoseiulus persimilis (Spidex, Spidex Vital, Spidex Vital Plus) and Neoseiulus californicus (Spical, Spical-Plus, Spical Ulti-Mite), both predatory mites, are highly effective at consuming spider mites, making them valuable allies in controlling mite infestations. Predatory mites control spider mites and other mites through direct predation, actively seeking out and consuming their prey. They lay their eggs near mite colonies, ensuring a continuous food supply for their offspring. Predatory mites can prevent infestations by suppressing pest mite populations.

    Gall midges

    The gall midge Feltiella acarisuga (Spidend) preys on spider mite eggs, reducing their numbers in agricultural settings. Gall midges, like Feltiella acarisuga, control mites by laying their eggs near mite colonies. Their larvae feed on mite nymphs, effectively reducing mite populations. They offer preventive and curative control, have a rapid life cycle, and are host-specific, making them valuable in integrated pest management.

  • Thrips control

    Thrips control

    Biological control of thrips relies on the use of beneficial organisms to manage their populations sustainably. Several key natural enemies play a vital role in controlling thrips, including predatory mites, beneficial nematodes, and predatory bugs.

    Predatory mites

    Predatory mites control thrips by actively hunting and feeding on them. These predatory mites locate thrips on plants, capture them, and use their specialized mouthparts to pierce and consume them. This direct predation helps keep thrips populations in check, reducing the damage they cause to crops. Important predatory mites species for thrips control are:

    • Amblyseius swirskii (Swirski-Mite, Swirski-Mite Plus, Swirski-Mite LD, Swirski Ulti-Mite), Amblydromalus limonicus (Limonica), Amblyseius andersoni (Anso-Mite), Neoseiulus cucumeris (Thripex, Thripex-Plus): These predatory mites feed on thrips larvae. They are highly effective in suppressing thrips populations in greenhouses and other controlled environments.
    • Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Entomite-M): This soil-dwelling predatory mite primarily feeds on thrips pupae in the soil, reducing the emergence of adult thrips and their subsequent damage to crops.

    Beneficial nematodes

    The beneficial nematode, Steinernema feltiae (Entonem), targets thrips larvae and pupae in the soil. They enter the thrips' body, releasing symbiotic bacteria that kill the pest from within.

    Predatory bugs

    The predatory bug, Orius insidiosus (Thripor-I) is a voracious thrips predator. It is known for its efficient hunting and can significantly reduce thrips populations in crops.

    Entomopathogenic fungi

    Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Isaria fumosoroseus (Isarid) are also effective for biological control of thrips. These fungi infect and kill thrips by penetrating their cuticle and growing inside the insect, eventually causing death.

  • Aphid control

    Aphid control

    Biological control of aphids involves various natural predators and parasitoids that manage their populations sustainably.

    Parasitic wasps

    Parasitic wasps such as Aphelinus abdominalis (Aphilin), Aphidius ervi (Ervipar), Aphidius colemani (Aphipar), Aphidius matricariae (Aphipar-M) control aphids by laying their eggs inside aphids. Once the wasp larvae hatch, they feed on the aphids from within, eventually causing the aphids to die. This parasitic behavior disrupts aphid populations, reducing their numbers and minimizing damage to plants.

    Gall midges

    Gall midges such as Aphidoletes aphidimyza (Aphidend) control aphids by laying their eggs near aphid colonies. When the midge larvae hatch, they actively seek out aphids and feed on them, effectively reducing aphid populations. This predation helps protect plants from aphid damage and contributes to integrated pest management strategies.


    Lacewings such as Chrysoperla carnea (Chrysopa, Chrysopa-E) control aphids by hunting and consuming them. The adult lacewings and their larvae actively seek out aphid colonies, where they use their sharp mouthparts to pierce and feed on aphids. This predation helps keep aphid populations in check, reducing plant damage and making lacewings valuable natural enemies in pest management programs.

    Entomopathogenic fungi

    Entomopathogenic fungi, such as Isaria fumosoroseus (Isarid), are also effective for the biological control of aphids. These fungi infect and kill aphids by penetrating their cuticle and growing inside the insect, eventually causing death.

  • Caterpillar control

    Caterpillar control

    Biological control of caterpillar pests involves various natural enemies, such as beneficial nematodes and predatory bugs.

    Beneficial nematodes

    Beneficial nematodes, such as Steinernema feltiae (Entonem) and Steinernema carpocapsae (Capsanem), play a role in caterpillar control by parasitizing caterpillar larvae. These nematodes enter their host caterpillar and release symbiotic bacteria that kill the caterpillar from within. As a result, caterpillar populations are naturally managed, providing an eco-friendly approach to pest control in horticulture.

  • Mealybug control

    Mealybug control

    Biological control of mealybugs relies on beneficial organisms to maintain pest populations at manageable levels. Several key natural enemies play a crucial role in the biological control of mealybugs, including parasitic wasps, predatory beetles, and lacewings.


    Chrysoperla carnea (Chrysopa, Chrysopa-E), commonly known as the green lacewing, is a voracious predator of mealybugs. The larvae of Chrysoperla carnea are particularly effective at hunting down and feeding on mealybug pests.

    Parasitic wasps

    Anagyrus vladimiri (Citripar), formerly known as Anagyrus pseudococci, is a parasitic wasp that specializes in controlling the citrus mealybug. Female Anagyrus vladimiri wasps lay their eggs inside mealybug nymphs, where the wasp larvae develop and eventually kill the host. By parasitizing citrus mealybugs, Anagyrus vladimiri helps control their populations naturally.

    Predatory beetles

    Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Cryptobug, Cryptobug-L), often referred to as a ladybird beetle, is a beneficial insect known for its appetite for mealybugs. Both the larvae and adults of Cryptolaemus montrouzieri actively feed on mealybugs. These beetles are particularly effective at targeting mealybug colonies hidden in plant crevices or covered in waxy secretions. Introducing Cryptolaemus montrouzieri into affected areas can lead to effective and sustainable biological control of mealybugs, contributing to healthier plants in an environmentally friendly manner.

  • Leaf miner control

    Leaf miner control

    The management of leaf miner pests often requires sustainable and eco-friendly approaches. Allies like the parasitic wasp Diglyphus isaea are crucial in controlling these leafminer infestations.

    Parasitic wasps

    Diglyphus isaea (Diglyphus) is a parasitic wasp known for its effectiveness in controlling leaf miner populations. Adult Diglyphus isaea females lay their eggs next to leaf miner larvae. Once hatched, the wasp larvae consume the leaf miner's insides, eventually killing it.

Diseases in vegetable crops

There are different types of diseases in vegetable crops that cause harm to the plants and their fruits. Common vegetable diseases are damping-off, fusarium wilt, cottony soft rot, and more. Learn about these diseases so you can identify them and take early precautions.

Disease control in vegetable crops

Controlling diseases in vegetable crops is essential for maintaining crop health and ensuring a successful harvest. Disease management involves a combination of preventive measures, cultural practices, and, when necessary, the use of fungicides and other disease control products.

Biofungicides for disease management in vegetable crops

Biofungicides are an important tool in the arsenal of sustainable farming practices for controlling diseases in vegetable crops. Unlike synthetic fungicides, biofungicides are derived from natural sources and are designed to control fungal plant diseases while minimizing harm to the environment and human health.

Biofungicides, also known as biological fungicides, are formulations that harness the power of beneficial micro-organisms, such as fungi, and other natural components, to suppress or prevent fungal plant diseases.

Scouting and monitoring for pests and diseases

Scouting and monitoring are fundamental practices in integrated pest management (IPM) for cannabis growers. These proactive approaches involve regular and systematic inspection of crops to identify the presence and severity of pests and diseases. Growers use various techniques, including visual inspections, traps, and modern technologies like remote sensing and digital image analysis, to track potential threats.

Scouting typically begins before planting and continues throughout the growing season, with a focus on early detection. Early identification of pests and diseases allows for timely intervention, reducing the risk of widespread infestations or outbreaks. Monitoring involves recording data on pest and disease populations, their distribution, and environmental conditions. By identifying issues promptly, growers can minimize the impact on crop yield and quality while reducing the environmental footprint associated with chemical treatments.

Sticky traps (Horiver) play a crucial role in monitoring and scouting for plant pests in agriculture and horticulture. Rollertraps are used in case large numbers of whiteflies and thrips are present. These tools are designed to attract, capture, and help identify specific pests, allowing growers to assess pest populations and make informed management decisions.

Crop scouting with Natutec Scout

Using a crop scouting tool can lead to more effective, sustainable, and profitable crop production by providing precision pest monitoring and real-time pest detection alerts. Natutec Scout is a crop-scouting tool for effective and efficient pest monitoring.

With Natutec Scout you can use your preferred scout method. Record scout observations by mobile phone manually or use the scanner for Horiver sticky cards for automatic detection of pests. The dashboard provides you with a complete overview of your scouting data which can be extended by uploading historical scouting observations. The real-time pest detection alerts let you stay ahead of potential crop damage.

Bumblebee pollination of vegetable crops

Bumblebees play a crucial role in the pollination of vegetable crops, ensuring the production of high-quality yields. Bumblebees are expert pollinators, exhibiting unique behaviors that make them exceptionally efficient in this vital task. Their fuzzy bodies attract pollen, allowing them to transport it from flower to flower. Unlike honeybees, bumblebees possess the ability to perform "buzz pollination." By vibrating their flight muscles, they dislodge pollen from certain flowers with exceptional precision, a technique particularly suited to crops like tomatoes, eggplants, and peppers.

Benefits of bumblebee pollination

  • Improved Fruit Set and Quality: Bumblebee pollination leads to more uniform and well-formed fruits, resulting in higher marketable yields for growers.
  • Increased Crop Yield: Research has consistently shown that bumblebee-pollinated crops yield more and larger fruits compared to those relying solely on wind or other less efficient pollinators.
  • Faster Fruit Maturation: Bumblebees facilitate quicker fruit development due to their efficient pollination techniques.
  • Enhanced Crop Consistency: Uniform fruiting, achieved through effective pollination, ensures a consistent supply for both farmers and consumers.
  • Genetic Diversity: Bumblebees, by visiting multiple flowers and plants, aid in cross-pollination, contributing to genetic diversity within the crop population.